A comet, as depicted in Ambroise Paré’s complete works, XVIth century.

Figure d’une Comete admirable veuë en l’air.
Iosephe & Eusebe escrivent qu’apres la Passion de Jesus-Christ,
la miserable destruction de la ville de Hierusalem fut signifiee
par plusieurs signes, & mesme entre les autres une espouventable
Comete en forme d’espee luisante en feu, laquelle apparut bien
l’espace d’un an sur le temple: comme demonstrant que l’ire
divine se vouloit vanger de la nation Judaïque, par feu, par
sang, & par famine. Ce qui advint, & y eut une si calamiteuse
famine, que les meres mangerent leurs propres enfans: & perirent
en la Cité durant le siege des Romains plus de douze cens mille
Juifs, & en fut vendu plus de quatre vingts dix mille.

Figure of a comet seen in the air. Joseph and Eusebius write
that after the Passion of Jesus-Christ, the miserable destruction
of the city of Jerusalem was signified by several signs, and
among others a terrible Comet like a gleaming sword in flames,
that appeared for one year on the temple: as to demonstrate
that the divine anger wanted to take vengeance upon the Jewish
nation, by fire, by blood and by starvation. Which happened, and
there was such a desastrous famine, that mothers ate their own
children: and died in the City during the Roman besieging more
than 1,200,000 Jews, and 90,000 were sold.

A comet, as depicted in Ambroise Paré’s complete works, XVIth century.

Figure d’une Comete admirable veuë en l’air. Iosephe & Eusebe escrivent qu’apres la Passion de Jesus-Christ, la miserable destruction de la ville de Hierusalem fut signifiee par plusieurs signes, & mesme entre les autres une espouventable Comete en forme d’espee luisante en feu, laquelle apparut bien l’espace d’un an sur le temple: comme demonstrant que l’ire divine se vouloit vanger de la nation Judaïque, par feu, par sang, & par famine. Ce qui advint, & y eut une si calamiteuse famine, que les meres mangerent leurs propres enfans: & perirent en la Cité durant le siege des Romains plus de douze cens mille Juifs, & en fut vendu plus de quatre vingts dix mille.

Figure of a comet seen in the air. Joseph and Eusebius write that after the Passion of Jesus-Christ, the miserable destruction of the city of Jerusalem was signified by several signs, and among others a terrible Comet like a gleaming sword in flames, that appeared for one year on the temple: as to demonstrate that the divine anger wanted to take vengeance upon the Jewish nation, by fire, by blood and by starvation. Which happened, and there was such a desastrous famine, that mothers ate their own children: and died in the City during the Roman besieging more than 1,200,000 Jews, and 90,000 were sold.

The transit of Venus: Mappemonde dans laquelle est indiqué l’effet que produira la Parallaxe sur le temps de l’entrée et de la sortie de Vénus en 1769, par Monsieur de La Lande. The Sun-Earth parallax calculation was quite a big deal at that time. Also, it’s during the 1761 transit that Mason and Dixon first met.

The transit of Venus: Mappemonde dans laquelle est indiqué l’effet que produira la Parallaxe sur le temps de l’entrée et de la sortie de Vénus en 1769, par Monsieur de La Lande. The Sun-Earth parallax calculation was quite a big deal at that time. Also, it’s during the 1761 transit that Mason and Dixon first met.

Drawing of Jupiter, from Nouvelles découvertes dans le globe de Jupiter faites à l’observatoire royal, by Jean-Dominique Cassini (1690)

Drawing of Jupiter, from Nouvelles découvertes dans le globe de Jupiter faites à l’observatoire royal, by Jean-Dominique Cassini (1690)

Typus obscurandae Telluris in Eclipsi Solis, about the solar eclipse of 15th September 1727 from Observations mathématiques, astronomiques, géographiques, chronologiques et physiques, tirées des anciens livres chinois, ou faites nouvellement aux Indes et à la Chine, par les Pères de la compagnie de Jésus published in Paris between 1729 and 1732. Look at the same map on the NASA website.

Typus obscurandae Telluris in Eclipsi Solis, about the solar eclipse of 15th September 1727 from Observations mathématiques, astronomiques, géographiques, chronologiques et physiques, tirées des anciens livres chinois, ou faites nouvellement aux Indes et à la Chine, par les Pères de la compagnie de Jésus published in Paris between 1729 and 1732. Look at the same map on the NASA website.

The constellation of Capricorn, from al-Sūfī’s Kitāb suwar al-kawākib al-ṯābita.

The constellation of Capricorn, from al-Sūfī’s Kitāb suwar al-kawākib al-ṯābita.

The Ptolemaic system, from Compilatio Leupoldi Ducatus austrie filis de astrorum scientia, 1513. Spere celestes decem sunt. Prima est firmamentum seu circumferencia. Secunda orbis signorum. Tertia orbis stellatus. Quarta saturni. Quinta iouis. Sexta martis. Septima solis. Octaua veneris. Nona mercurij. Decima lune.

The Ptolemaic system, from Compilatio Leupoldi Ducatus austrie filis de astrorum scientia, 1513. Spere celestes decem sunt. Prima est firmamentum seu circumferencia. Secunda orbis signorum. Tertia orbis stellatus. Quarta saturni. Quinta iouis. Sexta martis. Septima solis. Octaua veneris. Nona mercurij. Decima lune.

Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Sextans, Virgo: from an Atlas coelestes by John Flamsteed. (From the collection of the Observatory of Paris.)

Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Sextans, Virgo: from an Atlas coelestes by John Flamsteed. (From the collection of the Observatory of Paris.)

The climate zones of Earth, with the projection of the zodiac and the definition of the tropics of capricorn and cancer. From Cosmographicus Liber, another work of Petrus Apianus (1524).

The climate zones of Earth, with the projection of the zodiac and the definition of the tropics of capricorn and cancer. From Cosmographicus Liber, another work of Petrus Apianus (1524).

In November 1572, the astronomer Tycho Brahe discovered a supernova in the constellation of Cassiopeia. This illustration shows the stars (including the new one) on the body of Cassiopeia, tied to a chair in the heavens and holding a palm leaf, as the mythological tradition mandates. It is extracted from Brahe’s work Astronomiæ instauratæ progymnasmata.

In November 1572, the astronomer Tycho Brahe discovered a supernova in the constellation of Cassiopeia. This illustration shows the stars (including the new one) on the body of Cassiopeia, tied to a chair in the heavens and holding a palm leaf, as the mythological tradition mandates. It is extracted from Brahe’s work Astronomiæ instauratæ progymnasmata.

Lunar eclipse, an illustration from the treaty Astronomicum Caesareum of Petrus Apianus, published in 1540.

Lunar eclipse, an illustration from the treaty Astronomicum Caesareum of Petrus Apianus, published in 1540.